Update: There's a list of all the Trophies you can get from the game on PS3F.
According to this N4G post, Super Stardust HD has now been updated to v4.00 and is handing out the first PS3 Trophies. In case you missed it, Firmware 2.40 is now live.
As previously reported, the first Blu-ray game to offer Trophy support will be Buzz! Quiz TV, for release this Friday.