If a Reddit post is to be believed, it's likely that Cyberpunk 2077 will feature a New Game+ mode.
A Reddit user named CaptainGJB shared a screenshot on Reddit of a conversation they had with Lead Quest Designer Paweł Sasko via Twitter direct message. CaptainGJB asked Sasko if it will be possible to max out every stat and obtain every ability in one Cyberpunk 2077 playthrough, to which Sasko replied:
"...that is something that we are still working on. So it may change in time, as we are looking for the best formula for the game. Most likely, it won't be possible to max out everything on one playthrough, as it would have little sense to have a game that is about replayability and choices, while in the same time allow the players to max out all the stats on the first run..."
While this certainly doesn't guarantee a New Game+ mode, the last line about "allowing players to max out all the stats on the first run" does seem to imply that your stats can carry over from one playthrough to the next.
For perspective, developer CD Projekt Red did add a New Game+ mode to The Witcher 3 post-launch, so it's not a stretch to imagine they'd add one to Cyberpunk 2077 too. Although whether it's available at launch or added as post-launch DLC remains a mystery.