Bethesda has released a video featuring Todd Howard explaining how Fallout 4’s character and perks system works.
Basically, it quickly goes over the S.P.E.C.I.A.L. system (Strength, Perception, Endurance, Charisma, Intelligence, Agility, and Lucky) and how the player can use the various abilities and perks to fit their playstyle as they level.
Each ability contains a perk and each of the abilities will rank from 1-10. When selecting the starting SPECIALs, you can assign 28 points. You can also change them when exiting the Vault into the wasteland, after a certain point is reached in gameplay.
SPECIALs will have 10 perks and there are 70 base perks. With each perk ranked, it will increase the number to over 270.
This includes the top training perk for each SPECIAL, allowing you to skip a regular perk and raise a SPECIAL by one, providing you with the benefit of the new SPECIAL value, and also allowing access to higher perks in future levels.
Bethesda goes over this in more detail through the official website.
Fallout 4 releases on PC, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One November 10.